Design the final presentation to show case all that you know about the analysis of blood and patient education.
The final product must be created using PowerPoint.
- The final project should be no less than 10 slides/pages or no more than 15 slides/pages.
- The introduction slide must list the chosen topic, the student name, the instructor name, and the due date of the project.
- The last slide must be a list of library sources in APA format.
This project requires you to focus on the analysis of blood. Design the final presentation to showcase this knowledge
- Research the following information for your project:
- Name the main functions of blood. (Slide 2/Page 2)
- Describe the appearance and function of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. (Slide 3/Page 3)
- Describe how to obtain a specimen for and perform a hemoglobin test. (Slide 4/Page 4)
Cite the reasons for performing an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test, discuss the sources of error for ESR testing, and determine and record an erythrocyte sedimentation rate obtained by using a modified Westergren method. (Slide 5/Page 5)
- Explain the purpose of a prothrombin time (PT) test and describe how to obtain a specimen for and perform a CLIA-waived prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR) test. Also, explain how you could reassure a patient of the accuracy of PT/INR test results. (Slide 6/Page 6 and Slide 7/Page 7)
- Identify the tests included in a complete blood count (CBC) and their reference ranges and differentiate between normal and abnormal test results. (Slide 8/Page 8)
- Explain the reasons for performing a white blood cell (WBC) count and differential and discuss the preparation of blood smears for the differential. (Slide 9/Page 9)
- Use the instructions for creating a patient education flyer on the following: The importance of daily blood glucose testing for diabetics.(Slide 10/Page 10 and Slide 11/Page 11)
Expert Solution Preview
Introduction: The final presentation will focus on the analysis of blood and patient education. It will be created using PowerPoint and consist of 10 to 15 slides/pages. The introduction slide will include the chosen topic, student name, instructor name, and due date. The last slide will list library sources in APA format. The content covered in the presentation will include the main functions of blood, the appearance and function of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets, obtaining a specimen for and performing a hemoglobin test, reasons for performing an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test, sources of error for ESR testing, performing a prothrombin time (PT) test and a CLIA-waived PT/INR test, interpreting complete blood count (CBC) results, performing a white blood cell (WBC) count and differential, and creating a patient education flyer on the importance of daily blood glucose testing for diabetics.
Slide 2/Page 2: The main functions of blood include:
1. Transportation of oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products.
2. Regulation of pH balance, body temperature, and fluid balance.
3. Protection against infections through the presence of antibodies and white blood cells.
4. Clot formation to prevent excessive bleeding.
Slide 3/Page 3:
– Erythrocytes (red blood cells) are disc-shaped cells that contain hemoglobin and transport oxygen from the lungs to body tissues. Their function is to carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.
– Leukocytes (white blood cells) are responsible for the body’s immune response and defense against infections. They can be divided into different types, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.
– Platelets are cell fragments involved in clot formation and the prevention of excessive bleeding. They are essential for blood clotting.
Slide 4/Page 4: To obtain a specimen for a hemoglobin test, a blood sample is usually collected from a vein in the arm using a needle and syringe or a vacuum tube system. The procedure includes the following steps:
1. Clean the site with an antiseptic.
2. Apply a tourniquet above the site to help locate the vein.
3. Insert the needle into the vein and collect the necessary amount of blood.
4. Remove the tourniquet and needle, and apply pressure to the site to stop bleeding.
5. Transfer the blood sample to the appropriate container for analysis.
Slide 5/Page 5: An erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test is performed to assess inflammation or the presence of certain diseases. The reasons for performing an ESR test include:
– Monitoring the response to treatment for inflammatory conditions.
– Evaluating suspected infections, such as bacterial endocarditis or tuberculosis.
– Diagnosing and monitoring autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
Sources of error for ESR testing can include improper handling of the blood sample, incorrect timing, presence of substances that can affect the sedimentation rate, or technical errors in the testing process.
Slide 6/Page 6 and Slide 7/Page 7:
A prothrombin time (PT) test measures the time it takes for blood to clot. It is commonly used to evaluate the effectiveness of anticoagulant medications such as warfarin. To obtain a specimen for a PT test, a blood sample is collected from a vein using the same procedure described earlier for the hemoglobin test.
A CLIA-waived prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR) test is a point-of-care test that provides rapid results. It can be performed using a fingerstick blood sample or venous blood. To reassure a patient of the accuracy of PT/INR test results, healthcare professionals should explain the reliability of the test, describe the quality control measures in place, and discuss the certifications and regulations governing its use.
Slide 8/Page 8: A complete blood count (CBC) includes various tests to evaluate different components of blood. The tests included in a CBC are:
– Red blood cell count (RBC): Provides information about the number of red blood cells in a given volume of blood.
– Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration: Measures the amount of oxygen-carrying protein in the blood.
– Hematocrit (Hct): Indicates the percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells.
– White blood cell count (WBC): Determines the number of white blood cells in the blood.
– Platelet count: Measures the number of platelets present.
The reference ranges for these tests vary depending on factors such as age, sex, and overall health. Differentiating between normal and abnormal test results involves comparing the obtained values with established reference ranges.
Slide 9/Page 9: A white blood cell (WBC) count and differential help evaluate the types and numbers of white blood cells present in the blood. Reasons for performing these tests include:
– Assessing the immune system’s response to infection or inflammation.
– Monitoring the effectiveness of treatments such as chemotherapy.
– Diagnosing certain types of leukemia or other blood disorders.
To prepare blood smears for the differential, a thin layer of blood is spread on a glass slide, allowed to air dry, and then stained with special dyes. This allows the identification and differentiation of different types of white blood cells under a microscope.
Slide 10/Page 10 and Slide 11/Page 11: The patient education flyer will focus on the importance of daily blood glucose testing for diabetics. It should include information on:
– The reasons for blood glucose testing, including monitoring and managing diabetes, identifying blood sugar patterns, and preventing complications.
– Instructions for performing the test, including selecting and preparing the testing site, using a lancet to obtain a blood sample, and properly interpreting the results.
– Emphasizing the importance of regular testing, adherence to medication and lifestyle changes, and seeking medical advice in case of abnormal results.
To create the patient education flyer, follow the provided instructions and use visual elements, simple language, and clear instructions to effectively communicate the importance of daily blood glucose testing to diabetics.
Last Slide: List the library sources used for research in APA format.