1- Kinesio tape – what’s up with that? – Kinesiology tape has been around for more than 4 decades, but its use has grown since the 2008 Beijing Olympics, perhaps thanks to its application to American beach volleyball athletes utilizing the tape. What do the several manufacturers of this tape claim are the benefits of the tape? How strong is the evidence to support these claims?
2- Concussion in sport – Concussions have become a topic of great interest in recent years, especially in the context of amateur and professional sports. Do some research so that you can discuss the following:
What exactly IS a concussion? What are the symptoms of a concussion?
What are the short- and long-term health concerns for a patient who has suffered a concussion?
Do the symptoms or effects vary with the age of the patient (children vs. adolescents vs. adults)?
Do some sports have higher incidence rates of concussion in participants?
Finally, given your informed opinion, what advice would you give a parent who was concerned about their daughter or son playing popular American sports like football, soccer, or hockey?
3- Hearing loss – There are two general types of hearing loss: sensory neural and obstructive (e.g., ear-wax build up). What simple clinical tests can be done to differentiate between these types? Furthermore, how can the results be explained anatomically and physiologically?
And After that I need you to write reflection on this discussions statement.
1- I am an athletic training student and we use tapes like this on our athletes. The form of tape that is most common is KT Tape. On their website they claim that their tape lifts the skin, allowing greater movement of fluid throughout the body. Its meant to relieve pain while supporting muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Another form of tape is Kinesio Tape, and they claim that it supports muscles and rehabilitation. The evidence behind the taping is sort of lacking. There is no scientific proof to it actually working. It differs by case and peoples opinion.
2- A muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass. In muscular dystrophy, abnormal genes (mutations) interfere with the production of proteins needed to form healthy muscle, There are many different kinds of muscular dystrophy. Symptoms of the most common variety begin in childhood, mostly in boys. Other types don’t surface until adulthood, There’s no cure for muscular dystrophy. But medications and therapy can help manage symptoms and slow the course of the disease, Symptoms
The main sign of muscular dystrophy is progressive muscle weakness Specific signs and symptoms begin at different ages and in different muscle groups, depending on the type of muscular dystrophy, Duchenne type muscular dystrophy This is the most common form of muscular dystrophy. Although girls can be carriers and mildly affected, it’s much more common in boys About one-third of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) don’t have a family history of the disease, possibly because the gene involved may be subject to sudden abnormal change (spontaneous mutation) Signs and symptoms typically appear in early childhood and may include:
Frequent falls Difficulty rising from a lying or sitting up position
Trouble running and jumping, Waddling gait, Walking on the toes
Large calf muscles, Muscle pain, and stiffness, Learning disabilities
Becker muscular dystrophy, Signs and symptoms are similar to those of Duchenne muscular dystrophy but tend to be milder and progress more slowly. Symptoms generally begin in the teens but may not occur until the mid-20s or even later.
Expert Solution Preview
The following are answers to the provided content, which consists of three questions related to medical topics. The first question explores the benefits and evidence behind the use of kinesiology tape. The second question focuses on concussions in sport, discussing the definition, symptoms, long-term health concerns, variation in symptoms among different age groups, and the incidence rates in various sports. The third question examines the types of hearing loss, clinical tests to differentiate between them, and the anatomical and physiological explanations behind the results. Finally, a reflection on the given discussion statement is provided.
Manufacturers of kinesiology tape, such as KT Tape and Kinesio Tape, claim various benefits of the tape. KT Tape claims that its tape lifts the skin, allowing for better fluid movement throughout the body. It aims to relieve pain while supporting muscles, tendons, and ligaments. On the other hand, Kinesio Tape claims to support muscles and aid in rehabilitation.
However, the evidence supporting these claims is lacking. There is currently no scientific proof to validate the effectiveness of kinesiology tape. The efficacy of using this tape differs from case to case, and opinions vary among individuals.
A concussion refers to a type of traumatic brain injury caused by a forceful blow or jolt to the head or body. It results in temporary functional disturbance of the brain. Symptoms of a concussion can vary but commonly include headache, dizziness, confusion, nausea or vomiting, sensitivity to light and noise, balance problems, and memory difficulties.
The short-term health concerns for a patient who has suffered a concussion include immediate cognitive and physical impairments, such as difficulty focusing, memory issues, and trouble with balance and coordination. In some cases, symptoms may persist for weeks or even months. Long-term health concerns associated with repeated concussions include increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and other cognitive, behavioral, and mood disorders.
The symptoms and effects of concussions can vary with the age of the patient. Children and adolescents may experience more pronounced cognitive and behavioral changes, while adults may have more persistent physical symptoms. Furthermore, recovery time might be longer in younger individuals.
The incidence rates of concussions vary among different sports. High-contact sports like American football, ice hockey, and rugby tend to have higher rates of concussions compared to non-contact sports like swimming or track and field. This can be attributed to the nature of the sport and the potential for collisions or falls.
Considering the concerns surrounding concussions, it would be advisable for parents to ensure proper education on sports safety, including helmet use and adherence to rules and regulations. Additionally, monitoring the child’s symptoms and providing appropriate periods of rest and recovery after a suspected concussion is essential.
To differentiate between sensory neural hearing loss and obstructive hearing loss, several simple clinical tests can be conducted. These may include pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and tympanometry.
Pure-tone audiometry is used to assess the individual’s hearing sensitivity by presenting different tones at various frequencies and intensities. This helps identify the type and degree of hearing loss.
Speech audiometry involves evaluating the patient’s ability to understand and repeat spoken words at different volumes and background noise levels. This test further aids in determining the type and severity of hearing loss.
Tympanometry is a test that assesses the movement of the eardrum in response to changes in air pressure. It helps identify problems related to the middle ear, such as blockages caused by earwax or other obstructions.
The results of these tests can be explained anatomically and physiologically. Sensory neural hearing loss indicates damage or dysfunction in the inner ear or auditory nerve, which impairs the transmission of sound signals to the brain. Obstructive hearing loss, such as that caused by earwax, occurs when a physical blockage hinders the conduction of sound waves through the ear canal and middle ear.
Reflection on the discussion statement:
The discussion statement provides an opinion from an athletic training student regarding the use of tapes like kinesiology tape. The student mentions that scientific proof is lacking and that the efficacy varies among individuals.
I agree with the student’s view on the lack of scientific evidence supporting the benefits of kinesiology tape. While many athletes and professionals use such tapes, research studies and clinical trials are necessary to establish its effectiveness conclusively. It is important not to solely rely on personal opinions or experiences when making medical decisions.
As medical professionals, we must encourage evidence-based practice to ensure the safety and well-being of our patients. Further research should be conducted to determine the true benefits and limitations of kinesiology tape, allowing for informed decision-making and appropriate use in clinical settings.