Ch. 11

Discipline: Psychology

Type of Paper: Question-Answer

Academic Level: High school

Paper Format: APA

Pages: 1 Words: 275


What is a stimulus response chain? give an example.
Each behavioral chain consists of a number of individual stimulus-response components that occur together in a sequence. Each behavior or response in  the chain produces a stimulus change that acts as an SD for the next response in the chain.
Ex: cooking an egg.
take eggs out of the fridge-. take out pan- put pan on stove- turn on stove- spray pan- crack egg in pan- flip egg- put egg on plate.

What is a task analysis and why is it important?
It is the process of analyzing a behavioral chain by breaking it down into its individual stimulus-response components.
You must have a detailed task analysis that gives an accurate understanding of each stimulus-response component.

Describe backward chaining
You use prompting and fading to teach the last behavior in the chain first. By starting with the last behavior in the chain, the learner completes the chain on ever learning trial.
****typically used with learners with limited abilities****

Describe forward chaining.
you teach the first component, then the second and so on as you move down the chain.

Describe the total task presentation procedure.
The chain of behaviors is taught as a single unit. The total task is completed in each learning trial.

describe graduated guidance
You start out using hand over hand and gradually reduce this until you are just shadowing the persons movements

Describe how you would use a written task analysis to get a person to engage in a complex task. What is another name for a written task analysis?
Following a recipe to make a meal.

Describe the use of picture prompts
Take pictures of the outcome of each behavior or of someone engaging in each behavior in the task, The pictures are used to prompt the learner to engage in the behavior in the proper sequence.

Describe the use of video modeling
The learner watches a video of someone engaging in the chain of behaviors immediately before engaging in the same task.

Describe the use of self-instructions. What is another name for this?
self- generated verbal prompts
You teach the learners how to give themselves verbal prompts or instructions.

When is it appropriate to use a chaining process and when is it not appropriate?
If the person is not completing a task because they are not capable then you can use a chaining procedure.
If the person is not completing the task because they do not want to, then you would use a different procedure.

Briefly describe the guidelines for using a chaining procedure to teach a complex task.